Pipetting Samples

Science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch which illuminates the world.                                                                                                                                                            

Louis Pasteur  

 

 

Subject Intent:

 

Science is changing our lives and is vital to the world’s future prosperity, all students are taught essential aspects of the knowledge, methods, processes and uses of science. Students are helped to appreciate the achievements of science in showing how the complex and diverse phenomena of the natural world can be described in terms of a number of key ideas relating to the sciences which are inter-linked, and which are of universal application. 

 

Teaching in the sciences involves the process of building upon and deepening scientific knowledge and the understanding of ideas developed in earlier key stages in the subject disciplines of biology, chemistry and physics, through a spiral curriculum.  Students are taught that science is about working objectively, modifying explanations to take account of new evidence and ideas and subjecting results to peer review. Students are shown how to decide on the appropriate type of scientific enquiry to undertake, to answer their own questions and develop a deeper understanding of factors to be taken into account when collecting, recording and processing data. Students then evaluate their results and identify further questions arising from them. Students develop their use of scientific vocabulary, including the use of scientific nomenclature, units and mathematical representations.

 

 

We built the curriculum with the intent that students will:

 

  • experience a  knowledge rich curriculum so that the scope and nature of their study is broad, deep, coherent, practical and rigorous, so that students are inspired and challenged by the subject and its achievements.

  • be literate and numerate through the development of scientific vocabulary and learning to apply observational, practical, modelling, enquiry, problem-solving skills and mathematical skills, both in the laboratory, in the field and in other environments.

  • have high expectations for their behaviour and achievement when engaging with experiences within the subject. Our students will demonstrate respect and courtesy when exploring scientific ideas and avenues of enquiry through investigations.

  • develop their cultural, moral, social, mental and physical development by studying and experiencing examples that serve a variety of purposes, from showing how scientific ideas have developed historically to reflecting modern developments in science and informing students of the role of science in understanding the causes of and solutions to some of the challenges facing society.

  • be prepared for life beyond the school by building curious, independent and inquisitive individuals who have an appreciation and understanding for the world around them. This equips our students with the knowledge and skills our society needs to address modern day issues, deepening understanding of contemporary modern day challenges. In an increasingly unpredictable world we provide our students with the knowledge on which to base resilience, creativity and social understanding.

 

Subject Implementation:

  • The five year spiral curriculum has been designed to encompass the key ideas outlined for KS3 and KS4 in the National Curriculum. There are ten schemes of learning at KS3 which thread knowledge and skills into the 24 biology, chemistry and physics units of the AQA combined science trilogy GCSE studied at KS4. Students study KS3 in year 7, 8 and 9 (autumn term only) and commence their GCSE course during the spring term of year 9.

  • Schemes of learning are developed collaboratively within the department with resources shared and developed further on the science shared area. The schemes of learning follow a consistent format which includes: lesson content, knowledge, skills, success criteria, upgrades, reading, keywords, careers, Social, Moral, Spiritual and Cultural and British School Values. For each scheme of learning there are a set of lesson folders for each lesson, containing a PowerPoint and associated resources. These are used as a starting point by teachers to differentiate to meet the needs of their students.

  • A blended learning approach is used to promote and develop students’ independent learning through the medium of Microsoft TEAM.  Tasks are set in lessons and at home and supported by knowledge organisers  which are linked to schemes of learning. Lesson PowerPoints and resources, including the government devised Oak Academy, are available to support learning. Teachers will engage with students through feedback on progress which will enable them to improve and extend their learning.

  • An integral part of the science curriculum is the working scientifically element. This enables students to ask questions and develop a line of enquiry based on observations of the real world, alongside prior knowledge and experience and thus promote a love of learning that makes the subject relevant to them. The curriculum has been designed to include as many opportunities as possible for experiments and investigations.

  • Student progress is tracked through the use of rigorous, reliable assessments. These include frequent low stake questioning activities: during connects, to enable retrieval of prior knowledge and skills, and the use of Educake, an online assessment resource. On-going assessment also occurs through teacher monitoring of classwork and discussions with pupils.  Additionally formal assessment takes place prior to each data entry point. At KS3 there are two tests and an end of year exam. In KS4 there are end of unit tests and PPEs. Outcomes of these are analysed and discussed within the department and interventions and extra support implemented where appropriate. Assessment outcomes are compared to targets to monitor progress. Specific groups such as SEN, DP, MA are closely monitored and intervention, where necessary, is planned in order to reduce gaps.

Subject Enrichment:

  • The wildlife pond (on site) is used to enrich student experience of the natural world during their studies of food chains and webs at KS3 and classification at KS4.

  • Field studies around the school environment to study the distribution of living things in their local community. This is completed during KS4 when studying ecology and sampling techniques.

  • ‘Animal Care’ is a new BTEC course being set up for KS4 students from September 2020. Every KS3 class will spend one lesson a term learning about the Smithills Schools’ animals, their care, welfare, and how to handle them safely. There is also a weekly afterschool Animal Care Club, where students will work alongside the Animal Care Team, in caring for the Smithills Schools’ animals.

  • Salters Festival of Chemistry  – an annual event held at Manchester University where a team of four KS3 students compete with other schools to solve problems using chemical techniques and processes. This links to the separating techniques topics at KS3 and 4.

  • Year 9 Physics Olympics held at Bolton School- a group 8 students competed to build electrical circuits. This links to the electricity topic at KS 3 and 4.

  • Winners at the North West Manchester Science and Technology Challenge day held at Bolton University. 12 gifted and talented year 9 students competed with other schools in a series of practical activities that increased their awareness of the applications of practical science- E-Fit recognition, robot building, vehicle challenge and medical diagnostics.

  • Science Club will return in 2020 with a BANG.  KS3 students will participate in the fortnightly club, which will aim to raise interest and excitement in Science, by carrying out fun experiments to test theories and to explore practical science. This will bring science to life in a fun and engaging way!

 

Subject Impact:

The five year science curriculum model ensures that sequences of learning build on previous knowledge and skills along with laying the foundation for subsequent progression.

  • The social and economic implications of science are important but, generally, they are taught most appropriately within the wider school curriculum: teachers use different contexts to maximise their students’ engagement with and motivation to study science.

  • Students are able to describe associated processes and key characteristics in common language, but they should also be familiar with, and use, technical terminology accurately and precisely. They should build up an extended specialist vocabulary. They should also apply their mathematical knowledge to their understanding of science, including collecting, presenting and analysing data

Year 7

 

Pupils will develop their knowledge of

 

Biology

 

Organisms (Cells and movement)

  • cells as the fundamental unit of living organisms, including how to observe, interpret and record cell structure using a light microscope

  • the functions of the cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, vacuole, mitochondria and chloroplasts

  • the similarities and differences between plant and animal cells

  • the role of diffusion in the movement of materials in and between cells

  • the structural adaptations of some unicellular organisms

  • the hierarchical organisation of multicellular organisms: from cells to tissues to organs to systems to organisms

  • the structure and functions of the human skeleton, to include support, protection, movement and making blood cells

  • biomechanics – the interaction between skeleton and muscles, including the measurement of force exerted by different muscles

  • the function of muscles and examples of antagonistic muscles

 

Genes (Human reproduction and variation)

  • reproduction in humans (as an example of a mammal), including the structure and function of the male and female reproductive systems, menstrual cycle (without details of hormones), gametes, fertilisation, gestation and birth, to include the effect of maternal lifestyle on the foetus through the placenta

  • differences between species

  • the variation between individuals within a species being continuous or discontinuous, to include measurement and graphical representation of variation

 

Ecosystems (Interdependence and plant reproduction)

  • the interdependence of organisms in an ecosystem, including food webs and insect pollinated crops

  • the importance of plant reproduction through insect pollination in human food security

  • how organisms affect, and are affected by, their environment, including the accumulation of toxic materials

  • reproduction in plants, including flower structure, wind and insect pollination, fertilisation, seed and fruit formation and dispersal, including quantitative investigation of some dispersal mechanisms

 

Chemistry

 

Matter (Particle model and separating mixtures)

  • the properties of the different states of matter (solid, liquid and gas) in terms of the particle model, including gas pressure

  • changes of state in terms of the particle model

  • the differences in arrangements, in motion and in closeness of particles explaining changes of state, shape and density; the anomaly of ice-water transition

  • atoms and molecules as particles

  • conservation of material and of mass, and reversibility, in melting, freezing, evaporation, sublimation, condensation, dissolving

  • similarities and differences, including density differences, between solids, liquids and gases

  • Brownian motion in gases

  • diffusion in liquids and gases driven by differences in concentration

  • the difference between chemical and physical changes

  • the concept of a pure substance

  • mixtures, including dissolving

  • diffusion in terms of the particle model

  • simple techniques for separating mixtures: filtration, evaporation, distillation and chromatography

  • the identification of pure substances

 

Reactions (Acids and alkalis and the reactions of metals)

  • defining acids and alkalis in terms of neutralisation reactions

  • the pH scale for measuring acidity/alkalinity; and indicators

  • reactions of acids with metals to produce a salt plus hydrogen

  • reactions of acids with alkalis to produce a salt plus water

  • chemical reactions as the rearrangement of atoms

  • representing chemical reactions using formulae and using equations

 

Physics

 

Earth (universe)

  • our sun as a star, other stars in our galaxy, other galaxies

  • the seasons and the Earth’s tilt, day length at different times of year, in different hemispheres

  • the light year as a unit of astronomical distance

  • gravity force, weight = mass x gravitational field strength (g), on Earth g=10 N/kg, different on other planets and stars; gravity forces between Earth and Moon, and between Earth and sun (qualitative only)

 

Forces

  • forces as pushes or pulls, arising from the interaction between 2 objects

  • using force arrows in diagrams, adding forces in 1 dimension, balanced and unbalanced forces

  • forces: associated with deforming objects; stretching and squashing – springs; with rubbing and friction between surfaces, with pushing things out of the way; resistance to motion of air and water

  • forces measured in newtons, measurements of stretch or compression as force is changed

  • force-extension linear relation; Hooke’s Law as a special case

  • work done and energy changes on deformation

  • non-contact forces: gravity forces acting at a distance on Earth and in space, forces between magnets, and forces due to static electricity

  • opposing forces and equilibrium: weight held by stretched spring or supported on a compressed surface

  • forces being needed to cause objects to stop or start moving, or to change their speed or direction of motion (qualitative only)

  • change depending on direction of force and its size

 

Electricity

  • electric current, measured in amperes, in circuits, series and parallel circuits, currents add where branches meet and current as flow of charge

  • potential difference, measured in volts, battery and bulb ratings; resistance, measured in ohms, as the ratio of potential difference (p.d.) to current

  • differences in resistance between conducting and insulating components (quantitative)

  • separation of positive or negative charges when objects are rubbed together: transfer of electrons, forces between charged objects

  • the idea of electric field, forces acting across the space between objects not in contact

 

Energy

  • energy as a quantity that can be quantified and calculated; the total energy has the same value before and after a change

  • comparing the starting with the final conditions of a system and describing increases and decreases in the amounts of energy associated with movements, temperatures, changes in positions in a field, in elastic distortions and in chemical compositions

  • using physical processes and mechanisms, rather than energy, to explain the intermediate steps that bring about such changes

  • other processes that involve energy transfer: changing motion, dropping an object, completing an electrical circuit, stretching a spring, metabolism of food, burning fuels

  • fuels and energy resources

 

Pupils will develop their skills in

 

Scientific attitudes

  • pay attention to objectivity and concern for accuracy, precision, repeatability and reproducibility

  • understand that scientific methods and theories develop as earlier explanations are modified to take account of new evidence and ideas, together with the importance of publishing results and peer review

  • using a variety of concepts and models to develop scientific explanations and understanding

  • evaluate risks

  • appreciating the power and limitations of science and considering ethical issues which may arise

  • explaining everyday and technological applications of science; evaluating associated personal, social, economic and environmental implications; and making decisions based on the evaluation of evidence and arguments

 

Experimental skills and investigations

  • ask questions and develop a line of enquiry based on observations of the real world, alongside prior knowledge and experience

  • make predictions using scientific knowledge and understanding

  • select, plan and carry out the most appropriate types of scientific enquiries to test predictions, including identifying independent, dependent and control variables

  • use appropriate techniques, apparatus, and materials during fieldwork and laboratory work, paying attention to health and safety

  • make and record observations and measurements using a range of methods for different investigations; and evaluate the reliability of methods and suggest possible improvements

  • apply sampling techniques

 

Analysis and evaluation

  • apply mathematical concepts and calculate results

  • present observations and data using appropriate methods, including tables and graphs

  • interpret observations and data, including identifying patterns and using observations, measurements and data to draw conclusions

  • present reasoned explanations, including explaining data in relation to predictions and hypotheses

  • evaluating data in terms of accuracy, precision, repeatability and reproducibility and identifying potential sources of random and systematic error

  • identify further questions arising from their results

 

Measurement

  • developing their use of scientific vocabulary and nomenclature

  • understand and use SI units and IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) chemical nomenclature

  • use and derive simple equations and carry out appropriate calculations

  • interconverting units

  • undertake basic data analysis including simple statistical techniques

 

Year 8

 

Pupils will develop their knowledge of

 

Biology 

 

Organisms (Breathing and digestion)

  • the structure and functions of the gas exchange system in humans, including adaptations to function

  • the mechanism of breathing to move air in and out of the lungs, using a pressure model to explain the movement of gases, including simple measurements of lung volume

  • the impact of exercise, asthma and smoking on the human gas exchange system

  • the content of a healthy human diet: carbohydrates, lipids (fats and oils), proteins, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and water, and why each is needed

  • calculations of energy requirements in a healthy daily diet

  • the consequences of imbalances in the diet, including obesity, starvation and deficiency diseases

  • the tissues and organs of the human digestive system, including adaptations to function and how the digestive system digests food (enzymes simply as biological catalysts)

  • the importance of bacteria in the human digestive system

  • the effects of recreational drugs (including substance misuse) on behaviour, health and life processes

 

Genes (evolution)

  • the variation between species and between individuals of the same species meaning some organisms compete more successfully, which can drive natural selection

  • changes in the environment which may leave individuals within a species, and some entire species, less well adapted to compete successfully and reproduce, which in turn may lead to extinction

  • the importance of maintaining biodiversity and the use of gene banks to preserve hereditary material

 

Chemistry

Matter (Elements and periodic table)

  • a simple (Dalton) atomic model

  • differences between atoms, elements and compounds

  • chemical symbols and formulae for elements and compounds

  • conservation of mass changes of state and chemical reactions

  • the varying physical and chemical properties of different elements

  • the principles underpinning the Mendeleev periodic table

  • the periodic table: periods and groups; metals and non-metals

  • how patterns in reactions can be predicted with reference to the periodic table

  • the properties of metals and non-metals

  • the chemical properties of metal and non-metal oxides with respect to acidity

 

Earth (Earth structure, climate and resources)

  • the composition of the Earth

  • the structure of the Earth

  • the rock cycle and the formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks

  • Earth as a source of limited resources and the efficacy of recycling

  • the composition of the atmosphere

  • the production of carbon dioxide by human activity and the impact on climate

  • the order of metals and carbon in the reactivity series

  • the use of carbon in obtaining metals from metal oxides

  • properties of ceramics, polymers and composites (qualitative)

 

Reactions

  • chemical reactions as the rearrangement of atoms

  • representing chemical reactions using formulae and using equations

  • combustion and oxidation

 

Physics

Forces (speed, gravity and pressure)

  • speed and the quantitative relationship between average speed, distance and time (speed = distance ÷ time)

  • the representation of a journey on a distance-time graph

  • relative motion: trains and cars passing one another

  • gravity force, weight = mass x gravitational field strength (g), on Earth g=10 N/kg, different on other planets and stars;

  • atmospheric pressure, decreases with increase of height as weight of air above decreases with height

  • pressure in liquids, increasing with depth; upthrust effects, floating and sinking

  • pressure measured by ratio of force over area – acting normal to any surface

  • simple machines give bigger force but at the expense of smaller movement (and vice versa): product of force and displacement unchanged

 

Magnetism

  • magnetic poles, attraction and repulsion

  • magnetic fields by plotting with compass, representation by field lines

  • Earth’s magnetism, compass and navigation

  • the magnetic effect of a current, electromagnets, DC motors (principles only)

 

Waves (sound and light)

  • frequencies of sound waves, measured in hertz (Hz); echoes, reflection and absorption of sound

  • sound needs a medium to travel, the speed of sound in air, in water, in solids

  • sound produced by vibrations of objects, in loudspeakers, detected by their effects on microphone diaphragm and the ear drum; sound waves are longitudinal

  • the auditory range of humans and animals

  • the similarities and differences between light waves and waves in matter

  • light waves travelling through a vacuum; speed of light

  • the transmission of light through materials: absorption, diffuse scattering and specular reflection at a surface

  • use of ray model to explain imaging in mirrors, the pinhole camera, the refraction of light and action of convex lens in focusing (qualitative); the human eye

  • light transferring energy from source to absorber, leading to chemical and electrical effects; photosensitive material in the retina and in cameras

  • colours and the different frequencies of light, white light and prisms (qualitative only); differential colour effects in absorption and diffuse reflection

 

Energy (Energy costs, and heating and cooling)

  • comparing energy values of different foods (from labels) (kJ)

  • comparing power ratings of appliances in watts (W, kW)

  • comparing amounts of energy transferred (J, kJ, kW hour)

  • domestic fuel bills, fuel use and costs

  • heating and thermal equilibrium: temperature difference between 2 objects leading to energy transfer from the hotter to the cooler one, through contact (conduction) or radiation; such transfers tending to reduce the temperature difference; use of insulators

  • changes with temperature in motion and spacing of particles

  • internal energy stored in materials

 

Pupils will develop their skills in

Scientific attitudes

  • pay attention to objectivity and concern for accuracy, precision, repeatability and reproducibility

  • understand that scientific methods and theories develop as earlier explanations are modified to take account of new evidence and ideas, together with the importance of publishing results and peer review

  • using a variety of concepts and models to develop scientific explanations and understanding

  • evaluate risks

  • appreciating the power and limitations of science and considering ethical issues which may arise

  • explaining everyday and technological applications of science; evaluating associated personal, social, economic and environmental implications; and making decisions based on the evaluation of evidence and arguments

Experimental skills and investigations

  • ask questions and develop a line of enquiry based on observations of the real world, alongside prior knowledge and experience

  • make predictions using scientific knowledge and understanding

  • select, plan and carry out the most appropriate types of scientific enquiries to test predictions, including identifying independent, dependent and control variables

  • use appropriate techniques, apparatus, and materials during fieldwork and laboratory work, paying attention to health and safety

  • make and record observations and measurements using a range of methods for different investigations; and evaluate the reliability of methods and suggest possible improvements

 

Analysis and evaluation

  • apply mathematical concepts and calculate results

  • present observations and data using appropriate methods, including tables and graphs

  • interpret observations and data, including identifying patterns and using observations, measurements and data to draw conclusions

  • present reasoned explanations, including explaining data in relation to predictions and hypotheses

  • evaluating data in terms of accuracy, precision, repeatability and reproducibility and identifying potential sources of random and systematic error

  • identify further questions arising from their results

 

Measurement

  • developing their use of scientific vocabulary and nomenclature

  • understand and use SI units and IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) chemical nomenclature

  • use and derive simple equations and carry out appropriate calculations

  • interconverting units

  • undertake basic data analysis including simple statistical techniques

 

Year 9

Pupils will develop their knowledge of

Biology

Ecosystems (Photosynthesis and respiration)

  • the reactants in, and products of, photosynthesis, and a word summary for photosynthesis

  • the dependence of almost all life on Earth on the ability of photosynthetic organisms, such as plants and algae, to use sunlight in photosynthesis to build organic molecules that are an essential energy store and to maintain levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

  • the adaptations of leaves for photosynthesis

  • the role of leaf stomata in gas exchange in plants

  • plants making carbohydrates in their leaves by photosynthesis and gaining mineral nutrients and water from the soil via their roots

  • aerobic and anaerobic respiration in living organisms, including the breakdown of organic molecules to enable all the other chemical processes necessary for life

  • a word summary for aerobic respiration

  • the process of anaerobic respiration in humans and micro-organisms, including fermentation, and a word summary for anaerobic respiration

  • the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration in terms of the reactants, the products formed and the implications for the organism

 

Genes (Inheritance)

  • heredity as the process by which genetic information is transmitted from one generation to the next

  • a simple model of chromosomes, genes and DNA in heredity, including the part played by Watson, Crick, Wilkins and Franklin in the development of the DNA model

 

Chemistry

 

Reactions

  • representing chemical reactions using formulae and using equations

  • displacement reactions

  • thermal decomposition

  • what catalysts do

  • energy changes on changes of state (qualitative)

  • exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions (qualitative)

 

Physics

Waves (properties and effects)

  • pressure waves transferring energy; use for cleaning and physiotherapy by ultrasound; waves transferring information for conversion to electrical signals by microphone

  • waves on water as undulations which travel through water with transverse motion; these waves can be reflected, and add or cancel – superposition

 

Review of electricity

 

Year 10

Pupils will develop their knowledge

Biology

  • Cells are the basic unit of all forms of life and how structural differences between types of cells enables them to perform specific functions within the organism.. For an organism to grow, cells must divide by mitosis producing two new identical cells. If cells are isolated at an early stage of growth before they have become too specialised, they can retain their ability to grow into a range of different types of cells. This phenomenon has led to the development of stem cell technology.  

  • The human digestive system which provides the body with nutrients and the respiratory system that provides it with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. In each case they provide dissolved materials that need to be moved quickly around the body in the blood by the circulatory system. Damage to any of these systems can be debilitating if not fatal. Although there has been huge progress in surgical techniques, especially with regard to coronary heart disease, many interventions would not be necessary if individuals reduced their risks through improved diet and lifestyle. Also how the plant’s transport system is dependent on environmental conditions to ensure that leaf cells are provided with the water and carbon dioxide that they need for photosynthesis.   

  • Pathogens are microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria that cause infectious diseases in animals and plants.  How we can avoid diseases by reducing contact with them, as well as how the body uses barriers against pathogens. Once inside the body our immune system is triggered which is usually strong enough to destroy the pathogen and prevent disease.  Our body's natural system can be enhanced by the use of vaccination. Since the 1940s a range of antibiotics have been developed which have proved successful against a number of lethal diseases caused by bacteria.

  • Explore how plants harness the Sun’s energy in photosynthesis in order to make food.

Both animals and plants use  oxygen produced in photosynthesis to oxidise food in a process called aerobic respiration which transfers the energy that the organism needs to perform its functions. Conversely, anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen to transfer energy. During vigorous exercise the human body is unable to supply the cells with sufficient oxygen and it switches to anaerobic respiration. This process will supply energy but also causes the build-up of lactic acid in muscles which causes fatigue.  

 

Skills

Chemistry

  • The periodic table provides chemists with a structured organisation of the known chemical elements from which they can make sense of their physical and chemical properties. The historical development of the periodic table and models of atomic structure provide good examples of how scientific ideas and explanations develop over time as new evidence emerges. The arrangement of elements in the modern periodic table can be explained in terms of atomic structure which provides evidence for the model of a nuclear atom with electrons in energy levels.

  • Chemists use theories of structure and bonding to explain the physical and chemical properties of materials. Analysis of structures shows that atoms can be arranged in a variety of ways, some of which are molecular while others are giant structures. Theories of bonding explain how atoms are held together in these structures.

  • Chemists use quantitative analysis to determine the formulae of compounds and the equations for reactions. Chemical reactions can be classified in various ways. Identifying different types of chemical reaction allows chemists to make sense of how different chemicals react together, to establish patterns and to make predictions about the behaviour of other chemicals.

  • Knowing about these different chemical changes meant that scientists could begin to predict exactly what new substances would be formed and use this knowledge to develop a wide range of different materials and processes. The extraction of important resources from the Earth makes use of the way that some elements and compounds react with each other.

  • The interaction of particles often involves transfers of energy due to the breaking and formation of bonds. Reactions in which energy is released to the surroundings are exothermic reactions, while those that take in thermal energy are endothermic.

 

Physics

  • Energy can be described as being in different ‘stores’. It cannot be created or destroyed but it can be transferred, dissipated or stored in different ways .Energy is a key principle in physics, as it allows work to be done. The rate at which energy is transferred is called power and the amount of energy that is usefully transferred is called efficiency.  Much of the energy that is supplied by electricity which must be generated from other energy stores; some are renewable but most are non-renewable.

  • Electrical current transfers energy around circuits. There are two types of current: direct and alternating and is used in homes to power electrical appliances. The National Grid distributes electricity throughout the country.

  • The particle model is widely used to predict the behaviour of solids, liquids and gases and this has many applications in everyday life. It helps us to explain a wide range of observations. Changes in a material's temperature or state of matter are caused by changes to the internal energy. The energy required by different materials depends on their 'heat capacity' and 'latent heat'.

  • The idea of the atom as the building block of matter has developed over time. People are exposed to sources of radiation in all aspects of everyday life. Radioactive sources can be very useful but need handling carefully to ensure safety. Today radioactive materials are widely used in medicine, industry, agriculture and electrical power generation.

 

Pupils will develop their skills

 

Skills

Scientific Thinking

  • Understand how scientific methods and theories develop over time.

  • Appreciate the power and limitations of science and consider any ethical issues which may arise.

  • Explain every day and technological applications of science; evaluate associated personal, social, economic and environmental implications; and make decisions based on the evaluation of evidence and arguments.

  • Evaluate risks both in practical science and the wider societal context, including perception of risk in relation to data and consequences.

  • Recognise the importance of peer review of results and of communicating results to a range of audiences.

 

Students should be able to: Examples of what

Experimental Skills and Strategies

 

  • Use scientific theories and explanations to develop hypotheses.

  • Plan experiments or devise procedures to make observations, produce or characterise a substance, test hypotheses, check data or explore phenomena.

  • Apply a knowledge of a range of techniques, instruments, apparatus, and materials to select those appropriate to the experiment.

  • Carry out experiments appropriately having due regard for the correct manipulation of apparatus, the accuracy of measurements and health and safety considerations.

  • Recognise when to apply a knowledge of sampling techniques to ensure any samples collected are representative.

  • Make and record observations and measurements using a range of apparatus and methods.

  • Evaluate methods and suggest possible improvements and further investigations.

 

Analysis and Evaluation

 

  • Presenting observations and other data using appropriate methods.

  • Translating data from one form to another.

  • Carrying out and represent mathematical and statistical analysis.

  • Interpreting observations and other data (presented in verbal, diagrammatic, graphical, symbolic or numerical form), including identifying patterns and trends, making inferences and drawing conclusions.

  • Presenting reasoned explanations including relating data to hypotheses.

 

Students should be able to:

Scientific vocabulary, quantities, units, symbols and nomenclature

 

  • Use scientific vocabulary, terminology and definitions.

  • Recognise the importance of scientific quantities and understand how they are determined.

  • Use SI units (eg kg, g, mg; km, m, mm; kJ, J) and IUPAC chemical nomenclature unless inappropriate.

  • Use prefixes and powers of ten for orders of magnitude (eg tera, giga, mega, kilo, centi, milli, micro and nano).

  • Interconvert units.

  • Use an appropriate number of significant figures in calculation.

 

Maths skills: Students will be required to demonstrate the following mathematics skills in GCSE Combined Science assessments.

c and numerical computation

  • Recognise and use expressions in decimal form

  • Recognise and use expressions in standard form

  • Use ratios, fractions and percentages

  • Make estimates of the results of simple calculations data

  • Find arithmetic means

  • Understand the principles of sampling as applied to scientific data

  • Understand simple probability

  • Understand the terms mean, mode and median

  • Use a scatter diagram to identify a correlation between two variables

  • Make order of magnitude calculation

  • Understand and use the symbols: =, <, <<, >>, >, ∝ , ~

  • Change the subject of an equation

  • Substitute numerical values into algebraic equations using appropriate units for physical

  • quantities (chemistry and physics questions only)

  • Solve simple algebraic equations (biology and physics questions only)4 Graphs

  • Translate information between graphical and numeric form

  • Understand that y = mx + c represents a linear relationship

  • Plot two variables from experimental or other data

  • Determine the slope and intercept of a linear graph

 

Year 11

Pupils will develop their knowledge

 

Biology

  • the structure and function of the nervous system and how it can bring about fast responses. the hormonal system which usually brings about much slower changes. Hormonal coordination is particularly important in reproduction since it controls the menstrual cycle. An understanding of the role of hormones in reproduction has allowed scientists to develop not only contraceptive drugs but also drugs which can increase fertility.  

  • how the number of chromosomes are halved during meiosis and then combined with new genes from the sexual partner to produce unique offspring. Variation generated by mutations and sexual reproduction is the basis for natural selection; this is how species evolve. Processes like selective breeding and genetic engineering are explored and evaluated.

  • how materials including carbon and water are continually recycled by the living world, being released through respiration of animals, plants and decomposing microorganisms and taken up by plants in photosynthesis .All species live in ecosystems composed of complex communities of animals and plants dependent on each other and that are adapted to particular conditions, both abiotic and biotic. Also how humans are threatening biodiversity as well as the natural systems that support it.  

 

Chemistry

  • Chemical reactions can occur at vastly different rates, there are many variables that can be manipulated in order to speed them up or slow them down. Chemical reactions may also be reversible and therefore the effect of different variables needs to be established in order to identify how to maximise the yield of desired product.

  • Chemists are able to take organic molecules and modify them in many ways to make new and useful materials such as polymers, pharmaceuticals, perfumes and flavourings, dyes and detergents.

  • Analysts have developed a range of qualitative tests to detect specific chemicals. The tests are based on reactions that produce a gas with distinctive properties, or a colour change or an insoluble solid that appears as a precipitate chemical being analysed is small.

  • The Earth’s atmosphere is dynamic and forever changing. The causes of these changes are sometimes man-made and sometimes part of many natural cycles.

  • Industries use the Earth’s natural resources to manufacture useful products. Pollution, disposal of waste products and changing land use has a significant effect on the environment.

 

Physics

  • Forces are responsible for all the interactions between particles and objects. They can be divided into two categories: contact forces and non-contact forces. Gravity is one of the most important forces in the universe. An object with mass in a gravitational field experiences a force known as weight. Forces are responsible for changing the motion of objects. If more than one force is present, the shape of an object can also be changed.

  • Wave behaviour is common in both natural and man-made systems. Waves carry energy from one place to another and can also carry information. Modern technologies such as imaging and communication systems show how we can make the most of electromagnetic waves.

  • Electromagnetic effects are used in a wide variety of devices.

 

Pupils will develop their skills

Skills

Scientific Thinking

  • Understand how scientific methods and theories develop over time.

  • Appreciate the power and limitations of science and consider any ethical issues which may arise.

  • Explain everyday and technological applications of science; evaluate associated personal, social, economic and environmental implications; and make decisions based on the evaluation of evidence and arguments.

  • Evaluate risks both in practical science and the wider societal context, including perception of risk in relation to data and consequences.

  • Recognise the importance of peer review of results and of communicating results to a range of audiences.

 

Students should be able to: Examples of what

Experimental Skills and Strategies

 

  • Use scientific theories and explanations to develop hypotheses.

  • Plan experiments or devise procedures to make observations, produce or characterise a substance, test hypotheses, check data or explore phenomena.

  • Apply a knowledge of a range of techniques, instruments, apparatus, and materials to select those appropriate to the experiment.

  • Carry out experiments appropriately having due regard for the correct manipulation of apparatus, the accuracy of measurements and health and safety considerations.

  • Recognise when to apply a knowledge of sampling techniques to ensure any samples collected are representative.

  • Make and record observations and measurements using a range of apparatus and methods.

  • Evaluate methods and suggest possible improvements and further investigations.

 

Analysis and Evaluation

 

  • Presenting observations and other data using appropriate methods.

  • Translating data from one form to another.

  • Carrying out and represent mathematical and statistical analysis.

  • Interpreting observations and other data (presented in verbal, diagrammatic, graphical, symbolic or numerical form), including identifying patterns and trends, making inferences and drawing conclusions.

  • Presenting reasoned explanations including relating data to hypotheses.

 

Students should be able to:

Scientific vocabulary, quantities, units, symbols and nomenclature

 

  • Use scientific vocabulary, terminology and definitions.

  • Recognise the importance of scientific quantities and understand how they are determined.

  • Use SI units (eg kg, g, mg; km, m, mm; kJ, J) and IUPAC chemical nomenclature unless inappropriate.

  • Use prefixes and powers of ten for orders of magnitude (eg tera, giga, mega, kilo, centi, milli, micro and nano).

  • Interconvert units.

  • Use an appropriate number of significant figures in calculation.

 

Maths skills: Students will be required to demonstrate the following mathematics skills in GCSE Combined Science assessments.

d numerical computation

  • Recognise and use expressions in decimal form

  • Recognise and use expressions in standard form

  • Use ratios, fractions and percentages

  • Make estimates of the results of simple calculations2 Handling data

  • Find arithmetic means

  • Understand the principles of sampling as applied to scientific data

  • Understand simple probability

  • Understand the terms mean, mode and median

  • Use a scatter diagram to identify a correlation between two variables

  • Make order of magnitude calculations

  • Understand and use the symbols: =, <, <<, >>, >, ∝ , ~

  • Change the subject of an equation

  • Substitute numerical values into algebraic equations using appropriate units for physical

  • quantities (chemistry and physics questions only)

  • Solve simple algebraic equations (biology and physics questions only) Graphs

  • Translate information between graphical and numeric form

  • Understand that y = mx + c represents a linear relationship

  • Plot two variables from experimental or other data

  • Determine the slope and intercept of a linear graph

Contact Head of Department:

Mrs Davies - M.Davies@smithillsschool.net